"A new study co-authored by MIT economist David Autor shows that the rapid rise in low-wage manufacturing industries overseas has indeed had a significant impact on the United States. The disappearance of U.S. manufacturing jobs frequently leaves former manufacturing workers unemployed for years, if not permanently, while creating a drag on local economies and raising the amount of taxpayer-borne social insurance necessary to keep workers and their families afloat. /.../Jfr Michael Spence,om att globaliseringen faktiskt missgynnar många US-amerikanska arbetare och "middle class" genom att de blir av med jobben på grund av teknologisk utveckling och outsourcing, och inte får nya jobb:
'The effects are very concentrated and very visible locally,' says Autor, professor and associate head of MIT’s Department of Economics. 'People drop out of the labor force, and the data strongly suggest that it takes some people a long time to get back on their feet, if they do at all.' Moreover, Autor notes, when a large manufacturer closes its doors, 'it does not simply affect an industry, but affects a whole locality.'
In the study, published as a working paper by the National Bureau of Economic Research, Autor, along with economists David Dorn and Gordon Hanson, examined the effect of overseas manufacturing competition on 722 locales across the United States over the last two decades. This is also a research focus of MIT’s ongoing study group about manufacturing, Production in the Innovation Economy (PIE); Autor is one of 20 faculty members on the PIE commission.
The findings highlight the complex effects of globalization on the United States. 'Trade tends to create diffuse beneficiaries and a concentration of losers,' Autor says. 'All of us get slightly cheaper goods, and we’re each a couple hundred dollars a year richer for that.' But those losing jobs, he notes, are 'a lot worse off.' For this reason, Autor adds, policymakers need new responses to the loss of manufacturing jobs: 'I’m not anti-trade, but it is important to realize that there are reasons why people worry about this issue.'"
ur Dizikes artikel
"“One possible response to these trends would be to assert that market outcomes, especially efficient ones, always make everyone better off in the long run,” he wrote. “That seems clearly incorrect and is supported by neither theory nor experience.”
Mr. Spence says that as he was doing his research, he was often asked what “market failure” was responsible for these outcomes: Where were the skewed incentives, flawed regulations or missing information that led to this poor result? That question, Mr. Spence says, misses the point. “Multinational companies,” he said, “are doing exactly what one would expect them to do. The resulting efficiency of the global system is high and rising. So there is no market failure.”
Mr. Spence is telling us that global capitalism is working, but that the American middle class is losing out anyway."
ur Freelands artikel
David Autor, David Dorn, och Gordon Hanson, "The China Syndrome: Local Labor Market Effects of Import Competition in the United States" (pdf), MIT Working Paper, August 2011
Peter Dizikes, "The High Price of Losing Manufacturing Jobs", The Fiscal Times 26 februari 2012
Mark Thoma, "How To Bring Jobs to People Who Need Them Most", The Fiscal Times 28 februari 2012
Chrystia Freeland, "For U.S. Workers, Global Capitalism Fails to Deliver", NYT 14 april 2011