"AbstractPetri Böckerman & Roope Uusitalo, "Erosion of the Ghent system and union membership decline: Lessons from Finland" (pdf), 2006
Union density declined in Finland by more than 10 percentage points in less than ten years.
This paper analyses the reasons behind the decline, using micro data from the 1990s.
According to our results, the changes in the composition of the labour force and the changes in the labour market explain only about a quarter of this decline. The main reason for the decline appears to be the erosion of the Ghent system, due to the emergence of an independent UI fund that provides unemployment insurance without requiring union membership. We also find that the decline in the union density can be attributed to declining inclination of the cohorts born after the early 1960s to become union members."
"AbstractLyle Scruggs, "The Ghent System and Union Membership in Europe, 1970-1996", (pdf) 2001
In recent years, a fundamental basis of union strength, membership density, has diverged dramatically across Europe. While most countries have witnessed stagnation or decline in unionization rates, a few countries have actually experienced steady gains, and achieved virtually full unionization.
This paper addresses the impact of one often acknowledged, but underemphasized explanation for this divergence: differences in the way unemployment insurance is provided. Where unemployment insurance is compulsory and administered by the state, union membership has typically declined or stagnated during the last quarter of the twentieth century. However, where unemployment insurance is voluntary and administered by trade unions (the so-called Ghent system), union membership has grown
quite steadily in the same period. I attribute this close association to the rise of unemployment risks, which has different implications for the decision to join or stay in unions, depending on the way unemployment insurance is funded. In the compulsory system, unions have much less control over the labor market, since, they have no control over the conditions surrounding receipt of unemployment insurance."
se också en massa grejer av Anders Kjellberg, bl a
Kjellberg, "The Swedish Ghent System and Trade Unions under Pressure" (pdf), Transfer 2009
Kjellberg om facket och a-kassan (pdf) i P1:s OBS, 13 mars 2009;
Kjellberg, "Ökade avgiftsskillnader i a-kassan - ökad social polarisering", working paper, sociologiska institutionen vid Lunds universitet, 2009